Contract Services
The provision of supervised services under contract, for a specific project or period of time. “Contract Services” implies a fee-for-service pay structure

Customized Services
Staffing services that are customized to meet a particular client’s needs. Examples are pre-training on a client’s specific applications or software, or the production of orientation materials such as videos and manuals that are client specific.

Facilities Management
The ongoing management of an entire facility, function, or department at a customer site, usually including responsibility for hiring, training, and management of staff, as well as the provision of equipment and supplies necessary to perform the contracted function, by an outside vendor. Assigned staffs are usually permanent employees of the service provider, though temporaries may also be used in a routine or supplemental way.

Facilities Staffing
The provision of temporary workers to handle a particular facility, department, or function for a customer. Although first line supervision of these workers is sometimes managed through the temporary employer, ultimate supervision and management responsibility for the product or service of the department, or the outsourced function, is retained by the customer. Typically, these are considered to be “temporary help” arrangements, even though they may be for an indefinite period. “Facilities staffing” is often sold as a way to maintain high productivity in high-turnover, high-burnout positions such as telephone work, data entry operations, or repetitive assembly work.

Flexible Staffing
A generic term used to convey the use of various nontraditional work approaches, such as contract employment arrangements.

Just-In-Time Staffing (JIT Staffing)
A loosely used term that equates “flexible staffing” arrangements with the concept of “just-in-time” inventory control or delivery of parts for a manufacturing process. Rather than carrying inventory (or permanent employees), arrangements are made with a supplier to deliver parts (or help supply workers) just at the time when t

Usually refers to employment of more than a year, but in some cases assignments more than six months are considered to be “long-term.” There is no legal guideline of what actually constitutes “long-term” in relationship to jobs or employment. (See also: Short-Term.)

Long-term Staffing
Sometimes described as “facilities staffing” when workers from a staffing service are conducting a specific function for a customer on an ongoing, indefinite basis, it also refers to long-term assignments. Workers are most commonly recruited by the staffing services, although the customer, because of specific skills requirements of the positions, may be in the best position to locate the worker or workers.

Managed Services/Managed Staffing
Term used to describe facilities support management and outsourcing services. Refers to the on-site supervision or management of a function or department at a client (customer) site on an ongoing, indefinite basis; often the staffing service has output responsibilities and accountability. (See also: Facilities Staffing.) 

Managed Services Provider (MSP)
A company engaged to administer all aspects of an employer’s temporary staffing program, including recommending, selecting, and managing staffing firms and vendor management systems. MSP services can be provided by a staffing firm that also provides staffing services, or a staffing firm may act solely as an MSP and not fill job orders.

Business services provided for a client (customer) at the service provider’s location,                  not the clients.

Use of an outside business services vendor (and its supervised personnel), either on the customer’s premises or off-site at the vendor’s location, to perform a function or run a department that was previously staffed and supervised by the customer directly. (Sometimes, but not necessarily, limited to situations where some or all of the customer’s previous staff performing that function are hired by the outsourcing vendor.)

Long-term commitments focusing on “win-win” relationships between customers and suppliers (or among suppliers) that add value to both parties through increased sales, reduced expenses, and/or greater productivity.

Payroll Service
A business service that provides payroll processing, paycheck writing, and payroll tax administration, for a fee. No co-employer or joint employer relationship exists; it is plainly an administrative function.

Recruitment Process Outsourced (RPO)
Use of an outside business services vendor (and its supervised personnel) to manage all aspects of an employer’s recruiting process. RPO services may be contracted for an entire organization, a specific department, or a specific hiring requirement (e.g., staffing a new facility).

Refers to a work assignment of limited duration. The duration implied here is open to some debate. Most would agree that “short-term” means employment of a year or less. Some companies use six months as a cut-off for all temporary assignments; others use 1,000 or 1,500 hours to ensure compliance with federal legislation regarding mandated coverage. The U.S. Federal Government in its use of temporary employees provided by private-sector staffing companies allows a maximum of 240 workdays in a 24-month period.

Supplemental Staffing
The provision of temporary workers to a client company to supplement the current workforce for peak loads, special projects, or planned and unplanned worker absences.

An employment service concept where a client company plans to make a permanent placement hiring decision during or after a temporary help assignment. In a “temp-to-perm” situation, only temporary workers who are also seeking a similar type of permanent work would be sent on the assignment. Where a temporary assignment “just happens” to “go permanent,” it may be called a “temp-to-perm” hire after the fact, but it is generally not considered to have been a permanent placement.

Vendor Management System (VMS)
Web-based software that employers use to purchase and manage goods and services, including temporary labor. These tools are provided by third-party VMS providers as well as staffing firms that have their own technology platforms.

The provision of business services by an outside supplier (vendor), where the vendor brings its own employees on-site to perform a specific function, such as running a cafeteria or providing security services, or uses its own employees off-site to perform a specific function that was formerly done by the customer.

Vendor Neutrality
A concept most often used in connection with VMS or MSP services. The term implies that the VMS or MSP selects staffing suppliers and distributes client orders based on neutral criteria that are not biased in favor of a particular supplier or suppliers.


Vendor on Premises (VOP)
On-site coordination of a customer’s temporary help services through an exclusive, long-term general contractor relationship with a temporary help company. The designated Vendor On Premises may enter into subcontracting relationships with other temporary help suppliers, or such relationships may be specified by the customer.

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